Definitions have been primarily sourced from the 2011 New Zealand Cyber Security Strategy and from http://whatis.techtarget.com/
Big data is an evolving term that describes any voluminous amount of structured, semi-structured and unstructured data that has the potential to be mined for information.
A blog (short for weblog) is a personal online journal that is frequently updated and intended for general public consumption. The format is a series of entries posted to a single page in reverse-chronological order.
A network of compromised computers running malicious programmes under a command and control infrastructure.
Cloud storage is a service model in which data is maintained, managed and backed up remotely and made available to users over a network (typically the Internet).
An attempt to undermine or compromise the function of a computer-based system, access information, or attempt to track the online movements of individuals without their permission.
Cyber crime (or computer crime)
Any crime where information and communications technology is:
- used as a tool in the commission of an offence
- the target of an offence
- a storage device in the commission of an offence.
In New Zealand, some of the most common examples of cyber crime include fraud, identity theft and organised crime.
The practice of making the networks that constitute cyber space as secure as possible against intrusions, maintaining confidentiality, availability and integrity of information, detecting intrusions and incidents that do occur, and responding to and recovering from them.
The global network of interdependent information technology infrastructures, telecommunications networks and computer processing systems in which online communication takes place.
An attempt by an unauthorised person, whether successful or not, to access an information system, usually for malicious purposes.
Hacktivism is the act of hacking, or breaking into a computer system, for a politically or socially motivated purpose.
Any offence involving the misuse of a personal identity. The majority of identity crime is committed with the help of computers.
The UK National Archives defines an information asset as a body of information, defined and managed as a single unit so it can be understood, shared, protected and exploited effectively. Information assets have recognisable and manageable value, risk, content and lifecycles.
Includes a diverse range of commercially valuable assets including patents for new inventions, trade marks for marketing goods and services and copyright works like photographs, prototype drawings, literature and music. In business terms, intellectual property means that proprietary knowledge – a key component of business success – is protected.
Internet service provider (ISP)
An organisation that provides access to the Internet, commonly using copper, wireless or fibre connections.
Malicious software or potentially unwanted software installed without informed user consent, generally covering a range of software programmes designed to attack, or prevent the intended use of information and communications networks.
A form of Internet fraud that aims to steal valuable information such as credit card details, user
IDs and passwords by tricking the user into giving the attacker the confidential information.
Privacy can mean different things to different people. A common understanding reflected in New Zealand laws includes the ability for people to protect information about themselves. Go to Privacy Commissioner for more information.
Ransomware is malware for data kidnapping, an exploit in which the attacker encrypts the victim's data and demands payment for the decryption key. It spreads through e-mail attachments, infected programs and compromised websites. A ransomware malware program may also be called a cryptovirus, cryptotrojan or cryptoworm.
Deceptive, uninvited contacts or promises designed to trick people into giving away their money or your personal information.
The practice of obtaining otherwise secure information by tricking, exploiting human traits of trust and helpfulness, or manipulation of legitimate users.
Social media is the collective of online communications channels dedicated to community-based input, interaction, content-sharing and collaboration. Websites and applications dedicated to forums, microblogging, social networking, and wikis are among the different types of social media. Well known examples of social media are Facebook, Twitter, Wikipedia and LinkedIn.
The use of electronic messaging systems (including most broadcast media, digital delivery systems) to send unsolicited bulk messages indiscriminately. The most widely recognised form of spam is email spam.
Spyware is any technology that aids in gathering information about a person or organisation without their knowledge. On the Internet (where it is sometimes called a spybot or tracking software), spyware is programming that is put in someone's computer to secretly gather information about the user and relay it to advertisers or other interested parties. Spyware can get in a computer as a software virus or as the result of installing a new program.
A computer program that disguises itself as a useful software application, whereas it’s true purpose is to carry out and run a hidden, harmful transmission of material across a network.
A self-replicating program that spreads to other users by inserting copies of itself into other executable code or documents.